Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

September 2022 | 16(09):2022 | EARLY VIEW | 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.09

Nutritional efficiency in Acacia Mangium Willd seedling under nitrogen application

Matheus da Silva Araújo*, Brena Ficher Augusto dos Santos, José Paulo Carneiro Custódio, Adilson Pelá, Risely Ferraz-Almeida, Izaias Pinheiro Lisboa

Abstract
Even though Acacia mangium is able to perform Nitrogen Biological Fixation (NBF), seedlings are grown under N-fertilizer application during the initial stages of seedlings. The hypothesis tested herein is that the N supplying for Acacia seedling until the establishment of the symbiosis relationship is a required practice to enhance seedlings growth, N accumulation and Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE). In this sense, the goal of this study was to evaluate the implications of increasing N rates on Acacia seedlings’ growth and nutritional status in earlier stages of growth. The study was performed along four months in greenhouse with increasing N rates (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg dm-3) applied in pots. Plant parameters evaluated included: collar diameter, height, number of leaves, shoot and root dry matter. Plant nutritional status was evaluated through N content in leaves and NUE at the end of the trial. Findings herein showed that increased N rates applied enhanced all plant parameters, as follow: height (+53%), coller diameter (+43%), number of leaves (+70%) and shoot (+52%) and roots (+68%) dry matter production. Overall, increasing N rates promoted linear increasing on plant growth. Moreover, the N rates applied also improved the N content into the leaves, stem and roots in 55, 41 and 82%, respectively. The NUE was enhanced from 1.7 to 3.9 g mg-1 and plant dry matter was correlated with N content (r = 0.88). The findings herein indicate that N uptaken by plants was efficiently converted into dry matter. The high-N rates promoted higher N accumulation in roots (leaves>roots>stem) with a reduction in N fluxes, while N-low rates increased N fluxes and a reduction of N accumulation in roots (leaves>stem>roots) was observed. Based on our results, the N supplying during Acacia seedlings’ earlier stages, when seedlings are not able to perform NBF, was a promising strategy to increase plant growth as well as enhancing NUE by plants.

Pages 1069-1077 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.09.p3554
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Effectiveness of pollinator insects in increasing fruit formation of pummelo (Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.)

Tri Atmowidi*, Muchamad Nur Cholis, Arif Maulana, Windra Priawandiputra, Sih Kahono

Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB University), Bogor, Indonesia
Student of Animal Biosciences Study Program, Graduate School, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB University), Bogor, Indonesia
Laboratory of Entomology, Zoology Division, Research Center for Biology, The National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Bogor, Indonesia


Abstract
Pummelo (Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.) is a type of plants which have commercial value, and at least 24 cultivars are spread across various regions in Indonesia. Some cultivars have self-incompatibility (SI) mechanisms as genetic barriers to fertilization, but this can be reduced through cross-pollination by insects. Therefore, this study aims to measure the effectiveness of wild pollinator insects, as well as human and bee pollinations in pummelo. A total of six treatments were set up, namely closed pollination or control, open treatment, human pollination using pollen from the same tree (geitonogamy) or different trees (xenogamy), as well as supplementation colony of honey bee (Apis cerana), and stingless bee (Tetragonula laeviceps). The highest increase of pummelo fruit formation was found in human-pollination (xenogamy), followed by A. cerana, T. laeviceps, open treatment, and geitonogamy pollination with 63%, 54%, 48%, 41%, and 14%, respectively. Based on the results, bees (A. cerana, T. laeviceps, Ceratina sp., Xylocopa confusa, X. latipes), fly (syrphid species), as well as butterflies (Papilio demoleus, Catopsilia pyranthe, and C. pomona) are potential pollinating agents of pummelo.

Pages 1078-1083 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.09.p3562
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In vitro conservation of mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes): An important fruit tree of Brazilian Cerrado

Danyela Cristina Marques Pires, Simone Abreu Asmar, José Magno Queiroz Luz, Moacir Pasqual, Renata Alves Lara Silva Rezende, Joyce Dória*

Federal University of Uberlândia, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil
Federal University of Lavras, Department of Agriculture, Lavras, MG, Brazil


Abstract
This study aimed at evaluating the effect of osmotic agents, sucrose, and abscisic acid on the in vitro conservation of mangaba trees by slow growth. Two experiments were carried out. Nodal segments were inoculated in the MS medium with the addition of 1) osmotic agents (15, 20, and 25 g L-1 of mannitol and 10, 20, and 40 g L-1 of sorbitol) + control; 2) sucrose (0, 10, 20 and 30 g L-1) and abscisic acid – ABA (0 and 0.5 mg L-1). After carrying out the experiments, both were performed again, this time with the addition of 2 g L-1 activated charcoal to the medium for comparison. The survival rate and number of green leaves were evaluated after 45 and 90 days. For growth recovery, the explants were transferred to a specific growth medium, consisting of MS medium supplemented with 7 g L-1 agar, 1 mg L-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), 1 mg L-1 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 2 g L-1 activated charcoal. At 60 days, survival rate, number of green leaves, number of nodes, shoot length and fresh weight of the explants were assessed. The results showed that the use of 2 g L-1 of activated charcoal improves the growth and development of the explants. The tested doses of osmotic agents also did not influence the evaluated characteristics. However, there was significant effect of osmotic agent and time on survival rate and treatment x time interaction for the number of green leaves, having been influenced also by the use of osmotic agent at 45 days, in addition to significant differences between the control and the other treatments for this characteristic. The osmotic agents were not effective in plant conservation as well as the use of ABA. According to the conditions of this study, it is recommended the use of 30 g L-1 sucrose to the culture medium for up to 90 days in a row of in vitro conservation of mangaba plants.

Pages 1084-1093 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.09.p3581
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Low spring temperature may negatively influence olive yield

Camila Schwartz Dias, Mercedes Arias-Sibillotte, Guadalupe Tiscornia, Vivian Severino, Mateus Pasa, Flávio Gilberto Herter, Paulo Mello-Farias, Paula Conde-Innamorato

Federal University of Pelotas, Department of Plant Science, Uruguay
Universidad de la República, Departamento de Producción Vegetal, Facultad de Agronomía, Unidad de Ecofisiología de Frutales. Uruguay
Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA), Unidad GRAS, Estación Experimental INIA Las Brujas, Uruguay
Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA), Programa Nacional de Investigación en Producción Frutícola, Estación Experimental INIA Las Brujas, Uruguay


Abstract
The olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a species adapted to the Mediterranean climate, has expanded into new climatic regions. Uruguay has a humid temperate climate and highly irregular climatic conditions among years. Environmental factors can be an obstacle to full production, as they affect pollination and fruit set. In this research, the phenology of five olive cultivars (Arbequina, Arbosana, Manzanilla, Picual and Koroneiki) widely cultivated in Uruguay was studied, using the BBCH phenological scale. The pollen grains of five cultivars were submitted to in vitro germination and incubated at temperatures of 0°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°, 30° and 40°C for 24 hours, and pollen grains germination and pollen tube length were evaluated. These temperatures were analyzed for the occurrence probability. They were based on the historical series analysis of hourly average temperature data, from September 26 to November 15 (flowering period), for the years of 1998 to 2019. Phenology results show that flowering can occur from day 268 to day 320 of the year, with cultivar 'Manzanilla' being the earliest and 'Arbosana' the latest. It was observed that the temperature of 10°C has no effect on pollen grains germination and on pollen tube growth. Moreover, the temperatures of 15 to 20°C are not very effective and the optimal temperature occurs between 25 and 30°C. In Uruguay, during flowering, temperatures between 10 and 20°C are more likely to occur. These results indicate possible causes that affect fruit set and productivity of olive trees in the field.

Pages 1094-1100 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.09.p3602
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Corn yield components in function of the regulation of the seeder-fertilizer in a conventional planting system in amazon biome

Gislayne Farias Valente*, Vicente Filho Alves Silva, Gabriel Araújo e Silva Ferraz, Daiane Rodrigues da Silva Pinto, José Nilton da Silva, Lucas Santos Santana, Bruno Borella Anhê, Tiago de Souza Santiago, Daiane de Cinque Mariano, Ricardo Shigueru Okumura, Priscilla Andrade Silva

Federal University of Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brazil
Federal Rural University of the Amazon - UFRA, Parauapebas, PA, Brazil
School of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz" - ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
Federal University of the Piauí - UFPI, Bom Jesus, PI, Brazil


Abstract
The correct seeder-fertilizer adjustment is responsible for increasing the efficiency of corn cultivation's implementation process. This work aimed to evaluate transmission system regulation of seeder-fertilizer seed deposition unit in maize crop implantation in the Eastern Amazon. The experiment was carried out after the sowing process with a seeder-fertilizer for conventional planting with a mechanical seed distributor. The treatments resulted in five size combinations of driven gears (8, 10, 12, 15, 17) with the motor gear of size 7, which resulted in the respective corn sowing densities, 64.978, 62.311, 52.444, 44.977, 38.665 plants ha-1. Each treatment consisted of a 200 m seeding strip divided into 20 plots per strip (treatment). The agronomic variables analyzed were: average Number of Days to Emergence (NDE), longitudinal distribution of plants in the standard (N), Fault (F) and Double (D) fields, Initial Plant population (IP), Final Plant population (FP), Stem Diameter (SD), Plant Height (PH), Number of Leaves (NL), Number of Ears (NE), Mass of one hundred grains (MG), Number of Grains per row (GR), Number of Ear rows (ER), Ear Length (EL), Ear Diameter (ED) and Productivity (P). Data were submitted to statistical analysis, correlation test and decision tree analysis. The decision tree showed which initial population was more important to classify the most relevant agronomic variables in corn planting. The initial stand of 62.442 plants ha-1 was the most suitable for corn in the Amazon region. There is potential to reach corn productivity of 5.14 to 5.33 t ha-1 when combined with a drive gear 12 and driven gear 7 seeder-fertilizer machine transmission system.

Pages 1101-1106 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.09.p3605
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Vinasse for sugarcane crop nutrition: accumulation and efficiency in the use of nutrients

Amabelia del Pino, Omar Casanova, Jorge Hernández, Virginia Takata, Germán Panissa 

Dpto. de Suelos y Aguas, Facultad de Agronomía, UDELAR (Soil and Water Department of the Faculty of Agronomy, University of the Republic, Uruguay), Garzón 780, Montevideo, Uruguay
ALUR, Colonia España s/n 55100, Bella Unión, Uruguay


Abstract
The use of agro-industrial by-products such as biofertilizers hinders polluting discharges and allows savings commercial fertilizers. The application of vinasse (a by-product of ethanol manufacture) in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) production was evaluated in two soils of Uruguay (L1 and LB2). In a first ratoon crop, 150 and 300 m3 ha-1 of vinasse were applied (V150 and V300) and compared with the application of fertilizer (F) and a Control (C) with no application. Then, production and the plant’s N, P, K, Ca and Mg contents were determined. Vinasse and fertilizer applications increased sugarcane growth, as compared to C. However, there were no differences between vinasse dosses. The L1 fertilization treatment produced higher stem yield than vinasse application, whereas LB2 caused no differences. The application of vinasse at LB2 and L1 increased K uptake, exceeding the control, by 151 and 133 kg ha-1 of K, respectively, indicating that it could substitute fertilizer, while supplemental nitrogen fertilization would be required for maximum yield. The low use-efficiency of potassium (K) in vinasse treatments suggests that there was excessive consumption. Although vinasse increased soil exchangeable K, its residual effect would be insufficient for the second ratoon harvest, requiring annual applications.

Pages 1107-1116 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.09.p3617
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Structural and production characteristics and nutritive value of two tropical grasses submitted to different levels of nitrogen

Bruno Eduardo Caxias Miranda, Rosane Cláudia Rodrigues*, Clésio dos Santos Costa, Eduarda Castro da Silva, Rogério de Paula Lana, Ana Paula Ribeiro de Jesus, Izakiel Reis Marinho, Kátia Aparecida Pinho da Costa, Ivo Guilherme de Araújo Ribeiro, Jocélio Santos Araujo, Ricardo Alves de Araújo

Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Maranhão, Chapadinha-MA, Brazil
Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa-MG, Brazil
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology Goiano - Campus Rio Verde, Brazil


Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate increasing levels of nitrogen on the structural characteristics and nutritive value of Andropogon and Massai grasses under the edaphoclimatic conditions of the Brazil denominated Middle Nort Region. The design used was completely randomized, with four replications. The treatments consisted of nitrogen rates: 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 kg N ha-1 and two forages, which were evaluated independently. The grasses used were Panicum maximum cv. Massai and Andropogon gayanus cv. Kunth. For Andropogon grass, there was an effect of nitrogen fertilization on thecharacteristics: leaf elongation rate, stem elongation rate, leaf senescence rate and leaf blade final length and, in all cases, the behavior was quadratic. Nitrogen also influenced the morphogenic characteristics: leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, leaf senescence rate, phyllochron, leaf blade final length, number of live leaves per tiller and tiller population density of Massai grass, but the behavior varied according to the characteristic, in which leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves per tiller had decreasing linear behavior, while in phyllochron it increased linearly as nitrogen doses increased. Most of the productive characteristics of the grasses had increasing linear behavior (total biomass production of forage, leaf biomass and stem biomass in Andropogon grass, while in Massai grass, only the total forage production and dead material accumulation had an increasing linear behavior with increase of N doses.The production of leaves had a quadratic behavior and there was practically no production of stems, affecting the leaf-stem ratio ) while the highest efficiency of nitrogen utilization was achieved with the application of 150 kg N ha-1 for the two grasses. Nitrogen fertilization also favored the nutritive value of the two grasses positively, with linear increase for crude protein and mineral matter contents, only in Massai, and reduction in the contents of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and hemicellulose of grasses. Increasing doses of nitrogen fertilization favors the production, structure and chemical composition of the two grasses. However, the highest efficiency of use is obtained with the application of 150 kg N ha-1.

Pages 1117-1126 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.09.p3624
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Acclimatization of coffee seedlings obtained from zygotic embryos of aged seeds

Ana Luiza Oliveira Vilela, Sttela Dellyzete Veiga Franco da Rosa*, Stefânia Vilas Boas Coelho, Cristiane Carvalho Pereira, Ana Cristina de Souza, Fernando Augusto Sales Ribeiro

Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Agricultura, Caixa Postal 3.037, Lavras, MG, Brasil
Embrapa Café, Avenida W3 Norte (Final), Parque Estação Biológica, CEP 70770‑901 Brasília, DF, Brasil


Abstract
Coffee seeds rapidly lose viability during storage, which hinders the development of vigorous seedlings for crop establishment. There are reports that seed endosperm is more sensitive to deterioration than embryos, which can be excised and cultivated in vitro. However, a substantial number of plants grown in vitro do not survive during transfer to a greenhouse or field environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acclimatization of coffee seedlings of cultivar Catuaí Amarelo IAC 62, developed from zygotic embryos obtained from aged seeds in different substrates and environments, for the production of well-developed seedlings suitable for planting. For this purpose, seedlings were obtained from the in vitro cultivation of embryos obtained from seeds of two quality levels: freshly harvested seeds and artificially aged seeds. Zygotic embryos were extracted from the seeds and cultivated in MS medium. At 60 days, the percentages of normal and abnormal seedlings and dead seeds were evaluated. The good-quality seedlings grown in vitro for 60 days were transplanted into two different substrates (Tropstrato and coconut fiber) and acclimatized in two environments (growth room and greenhouse with a misting system). The plants were evaluated for height, stem diameter, number of leaves, chlorophyll content, and growth rate. The greenhouse environment was better for seedling growth, possibly due to its higher sunlight and temperature. The best substrate was coconut fiber, as it ensured better development of plants from freshly harvested seeds and those from aged seeds. It is possible to develop healthy seedlings from seeds with low viability.

Pages 1127-1134 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.09.p3628
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Kernel quality, germination rate and seedling performance of eight wheat varieties produced under three different irrigation regimes

Adel H Abdel-Ghani*, Saddam Aref Al-Dalain, Ghassab H Tarawneh, Huda Hazim Al-Taae, Basel H Al-Tarawneh, Saed J. Owais, Awad S Al-Ebissat, Raeda Al-Mayta, Jawad A. AL-Dala'een, Mahmud Ayed Duwayri

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Mutah University, Mutah, Karak, 61710, Jordan
Al-Shoubak University College, Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Salt 19117, Jordan
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University, Nineveh, Iraq
National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension, AlBaq’a, Amman, Jordan
Karak University College, Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Salt, Jordan
Department of Horticulture and Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan


Abstract
The effects of three different irrigation treatments were tested on kernel quality (i.e. kernel size), germination rate and seedling performance of eight wheat varieties. The irrigation treatments used were as follows: (i) rainfed treatment with 262.8mm annual rainfall received during the growing season, (ii) partial irrigation (PSI) treatment receiving 482.8 mm of water (262.8mm rainfall + 220mm irrigation at anthesis) and (iii) continuous supplementary irrigation (CSI) receiving 640 mm water (262.8 mm rainfall + 377.2 mm supplementary irrigation at 2-3 weeks interval). Seven durum wheat varieties (Sham1, Omqais, Acsad65, Bani Suef6, Bani Suef4, Horani Nawawi, Dairalla6) and one bread wheat variety (Ammon) were included in this study. Split-plot design was used with three replications. The main plots were the irrigation treatments, while the sub-plots were varieties nested within irrigation treatments. Kernels weight was recorded under different irrigation treatments in addition to the germination rate parameters (mean germination time and the time to attain 10% and 50% of complete germination percentage) and seedling attributes (shoot length, maximum seminal root length, coleoptile length, shoot fresh weight and seminal root fresh weight). The thousand kernel weight (TKW) was maximum under PSI (46.21g), followed by CSI (43.20g) and rainfed treatment (41.70g). TKW was maximum in Cham1 (45.37g) and BaniSuef6 (45.22g), while the minimum TKW was recorded in Ammon bread wheat variety (39.19g). Smaller wheat kernels released under rainfed condition were notoriously faster to germinate as compared with kernels released under CSI and PSI, and consequently smaller kernels would be desirable to accelerate the time required from sowing to seedling emergence. Hourani Nawawi and DairAlla 6 gave a more vigorous seedling with longer seminal roots and larger seedling biomass, which might indicate their high adaptability to early drought. In conclusion, smaller kernels were faster in germination, which minimize the time required from germination to emergence for a good stand establishment, while heavy kernels would have seedlings with a more vigorous root system which may help the crop to withstand early drought.

Pages 1135-1143 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.09.p3632