Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

August 2022 | 16(08):2022 | EARLY VIEW | 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.08


Intercropping of sorghum with congo grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis) on soybean succession at the rainy season

Larissa Pacheco Borges, Alessandro Guerra da Silva, Christiano Lima Lobo de Andrade, Maria Mirmes Paiva Goulart, Itamar Rosa Teixeira, Kátia Aparecida de Pinho Costa

Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Agrárias, Instituto Federal Goiano, Brasil
Programa de Pós-graduação em Produção Vegetal, Universidade de Rio Verde, Brasil
Programa de Pós-graduação em Engenharia Agrícola, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Brasil


Abstract
Sorghum intercropping with Brachiaria has the potential to improve grain yield and dry matter in the Cerrado region, but there are no studies on the ideal density of Brachiaria seeds for adoption in intercropping when the system is deployed at the beginning of the rainy season. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the intercropping of sorghum with Brachiaria ruziziensis that may provide higher yield of grain sorghum and dry mass of both crops. We also evaluated the performance of soybeans in succession after intercropping. The test was conducted in 2013/14 and 2014/15 in tropical climate region with wet and dry seasons. The experimental design followed a randomized complete block in a factor 3 x 5 + 1 + 5, corresponding to three intercropping Brachiaria ruziziensis seeding systems (row, inter-row and broadcast sowing) associated with five densities of Brachiaria (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 pure viable seeds m-2) plus the additional treatments related to monocultures of the grain sorghum and the five densities of the Brachiaria. The Brachiaria ruziziensis association with sorghum cultivation proved to be a promising technique for improving grain yield and dry matter at different times of the year without affecting the development and yield of the soybean crop culture. The best results were achieved with planting of Brachiaria ruziziensis in the line at the sowing density of 8 viable pure m-2 seeds and the inter-row sowing density of 6 viable pure m-2 seeds.

Pages 997-1009 | Full Text PDF| Supplementray PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.08.p2078
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Effect of the host plant on some biological parameters of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae) in the extreme south-eastern Algeria (Sahara)

Rahma Beddiaf, Yasmina Kherbouche, Tinhinan Fecih, Amar Eddoud, Karim Souttou, Rekia Abdouali, Makhlouf Sekour

Faculty of SNV, Agronomy Department, University of Kasdi Merbah Ouargla, Algeria
Faculty of SNV, Department of Agropastoralism, University of Djelfa, Algeria
Department of Agricultural and Forestry Zoology, ENSA, El-Harrach, Algeria


Abstract
This paper studies the effect of the plant support on the biological activity of Ceratitis capitata, as well as the estimated infestation rate of certain fruit trees (orange, mandarin, fig, apricot and pomegranate) in two regions of extreme south-eastern Algeria. The results show that the fruits most bitten by the Mediterranean fly are pomegranates with a number varying between 2 and 40 bites/fruit (9.2 ± 0.5 bites/fruit), while figs are the least bitten with a number varying between 1 and 4 bites/fruit (1.7 ± 0.1 bites/fruit). In terms of infestation, apricot (Rd = 93.3%) and pomegranate (Rd = 88.6%) are the trees most attacked by Ceratitis capitata, while orange is the least attacked (Rd = 42%). The study of some bio-ecological parameters of this bio-aggressor shows that the pupal period varies according to the type of host plant, between 6.9 ± 1.7 days (apricot) and 13.0 ± 1.8 days (mandarin), with zero emergence for orange tree. Pupae size varies very little between host plants, with 4.2 ± 0.2 mm for languor and 1.9 ± 0.0 mm for large diameter. The emergence rate also varies between crops (p = 0.038) from 33.8 ± 14.7% (apricot) to 63.4 ± 20.5% (mandarin). The same is true for adult longevity. The sex-ratio of C. capitata is higher for females on all host plants. Thus, this study shows that the infestation of C. capitata depends on the host plants, the pupal stage duration, the emergence rate and the longevity of adults (very long during the winter and decreased during the summer period).

Pages 1010-1019 | Full Text PDF| 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.08.p2691
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Nitrogen metabolism of two tropical forage grass species: nitrogen availability × cultivars

Tiago Barreto Garcez, Francisco Antonio Monteiro

Agronomy Department, Federal University of Sergipe, Nossa Senhora da Glória, SE, Brazil
Soil Science Department, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Brazil


Abstract
The understanding about N metabolism in roots and/or shoots of forage grasses should help determine how some cultivars use N more efficiently. This study was designed to determine whether two Brachiaria brizantha cultivars and two Panicum maximum cultivars differ in their N metabolism. Two cultivars of Panicum maximum and two cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha were investigated under the supply of low and high nitrogen rates in a greenhouse experiment. Some characteristics such as dry mass production, total nitrogen, nitrate and ammonium concentrations and contents; nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities; and total free amino acid concentrations in shoots and roots were measured. The results showed that Panicum cultivars showed higher NR activity and GS activity in diagnostic leaves (DL) than Brachiaria cultivars. Brachiaria cultivars showed the highest ammonium concentrations in roots at low N supply and Panicum cultivars at high N supply. The total amino acid concentrations in DL were highest in Panicum and root total amino acid concentrations were highest in Brachiaria. Panicum and Brachiaria cultivars differed in their nitrogen metabolism with varying N supply. The results indicate that at low nitrogen supply to the pasture, Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Piatã may be an option to use when the choice of grass is prioritized due to the presence of the forms of nitrogen in the grass, instead of high dry mass production. For those pastures with high nitrogen availability, the cultivars Mombaça and Aruana of Panicum maximum were clearly superior to Piatã, which suggests priority in the selection of these cultivars to be used in more intensive production systems that apply more nitrogen.

Pages 1020-1029 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.08.p3239
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Insecticide compounds selection based on activation of ecdysteroid receptors in Diptera (S2) and Lepidoptera (Sf9) cell lines

Maicon Roberto Ribero Machado, Ericmar Avila dos Santos, Eder João Lenardão, Moisés João Zotti, Deivid Araújo Magano, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, José Antonio Gonzalez da Silva, Daniela Jacoboski Hutra, Murilo Vieira Loro, Victor Delino Barasuol Scarton, Valéria Scaio Bubans

Department of Crop Protection, Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), Pelotas, Brazil
Licungo University, Mozambique
Program in Genetics and Plant Breeding, Regional University of Northwestern Rio Grande do Sul, Ijuí, Brazil
Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil


Abstract
Nuclear receptors are important targets in the research for the discovery of brand-new insecticides, and the ecdysteroid receptor is one of the most important targets nowadays. In this study, nine organocalcogenic compounds analogs of dibenzoylhydrazine were tested in a screening system, that presented at least 80% of compatibility in at least one of the three micromolar concentrations tested. We optimized in embryonic cell lines of the order Lepidoptera (SF9) and Diptera (S2), and these cell lines were transfected with a specific reporter plasmid. The nine compounds tested did not present agonist activity in both cell lines tested. In S2 cells the DAF-2 molecule inhibited the ECR-USP luminescence in 29.91%, and the DAF-4 molecule significantly inhibited the nuclear receptor luminescence in 51 to 55% compared to 20-Hydroxyecdysone (control). In SF9 cells, DAF-2 inhibited ECR-USP luminescence in 19.62%, and DAF-4 inhibited the receptor luminescence by 35.14% compared to 20-Hydroxyecdysone (control). In silico analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster receptor with the compound, DAF-2 showed inhibition of amino acids THR467 and MET-508 and with compound DAF-4 inhibition of ARG-511. For the of Heliothis virescens receptor for dendritic compounds, DAF-2 promoted inhibition of amino acids THR-343 and ARG-387 and DAF-4 inhibited ASN-504 and ARG-387.

Pages 1030-1037 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.08.p3436
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Jaboticaba genotypes: analysis of fruits, seeds, and artisanal wine

Julcinara Oliveira Baptista, José Carlos Lopes, Edilson Romais Schmildt, Tércio da Silva de Souza, Antônio Manoel Maradini Filho, João Paulo Bestete de Oliveira, Marcia Flores da Silva Ferreira, Francine Alves Nogueira de Almeida, Ingridh Medeiros Simões, Rodrigo Sobreira Alexandre

Federal University of Espírito Santo / UFES, Department of Agronomy, Center for Agricultural Sciences and Engineering / CCAE, Alto Universitário, s / n, Guararema, 29500-000 Alegre, ES, Brazil
Federal University of Espírito Santo / UFES, Department of Forest and Wood Sciences, CCAE / UFES. Avenida Governador Lindemberg, 316, Centro, 29550-000 Jerônimo Monteiro, ES, Brazil
Federal University of Espírito Santo / UFES, Department of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, North University Center of Espírito Santo, Highway BR 101 Norte, Km 60, Litorâneo, 29932-540 São Mateus, ES, Brazil
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Espírito Santo (IFES), Rua Principal, s / n, Rive District, CEP: 29.500-000, Alegre, ES, Brazil
Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES), Department of Food Engineering, Alto Universitário, no number, Guararema, 29500-000 Alegre, ES, Brazil
Federal University of Espírito Santo / UFES Department of Genetics and breeding, Center for Agricultural Sciences and Engineering / CCAE, Alto Universitário, no number, Guararema, 29500-000 Alegre, ES, Brazil

Abstract
Jaboticaba is a fruit species native to Brazil that is appreciated for its sweet fruits, which are rich in chemical compounds. Despite the remarkable potential of this species, only few studies have explored fruit trees native to Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of fruits, the physiological quality of seeds, the production of artisanal fermented beverages, and the molecular characteristics of eight jaboticaba genotypes. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design and the following features were analyzed: the physical and chemical characteristics of fruits using four replicates of 25 ripe fruits; the physiological quality of seeds using four replicates of 50 seeds, with four replicates of 25 seedlings employed for growth evaluation; the production and quality of the artisanal fermented jabuticaba, including an analysis of the alcohol content (WAC - %), pH, and total acidity of the fermented jabuticaba (WTA - meq L-1), and molecular diversity, with 50 SSRs evaluated for transferability in eight jabuticaba genotypes. Of these, 12 SSR were selected to produce clear bands that indicated specificity. Genotype 4 presented one of the largest values for fruit mass (15.25 g) and SS/TA ratio (51.92), which are ideal values for in natura consumption and are associated with higher contents of antioxidant compounds, such as anthocyanins and total phenolics. The genotypes had no statistical difference in seedling emergence, with a mean of 97.6%, despite genotype 5 presenting the highest emergence speed (2.75) and the lowest mean emergence time (18.10 days). Genotype 5 was found to be more vigorous. Further, genotypes 2 and 4 were considered ideal for in natura consumption, with fruits presenting high pulp yield, balanced SS/TA ratio, and high contents of antioxidant compounds. Genotypes 6, 3, and 8 displayed great potential for use in industrial processes. The groups of genotypes reflect the detected genotypes with different purposes and may guide divergent crosses for traits of interest in breeding programs.

Pages 1038-1046 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.08.p3461
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Investigation of Al-toxicity tolerance in tef (Eragrostis tef) under hydroponic system using root growth measurement and haematoxylin staining methods

Ermias Abate*, Shimelis Hussein, Assefa Amelework, Jon E. Shaff, Mark Laing, Zerihun Tadele, Fentahun Mengistu

Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, P.O.Box-527, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal African Centre for Crop Improvement, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
Agricultural Research Council, Vegetable, Industrial and Medicinal Plants, Private Bag X293, Roodeplaat, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
Robert W. Holley Centre of Agriculture and health, USDAARS, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, 3013 Bern, Switzerland, 5Institute of Biotechnology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 32853, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Sasakawa Africa Association/ Sasaakawa Global 2000 Ethiopia, P.O.Box 12771, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Abstract
Tef is the most widely grown and consumed crop in Ethiopia. The crop is currently gaining growing popularity worldwide as nutritious and gluten free cereal crop. Al-toxicity is one of the factors that limit expansion of the crop worldwide. The aims of this study were to adapt hydroponic system as a phenotyping platform for Al-tolerance studies in tef, to identify appropriate concentration of Al3+ for Al-tolerance screening in tef, and to appraise the use of haematoxylin staining for visual assessment of Al-tolerance in tef. A tolerant and a sensitive genotypes were used to identify appropriate Al concentration. The identified Al concentration was used to evaluate reaction of 28 tef genotypes to Al-toxicity. Root and shoot measurements under Al-treated and control solution were used to compute the relative tolerance indexes. Reaction of the tolerant and the sensitive genotypes to haematoxylin staining was assessed by recording intensity of colour development. The result indicate that, among the five levels of AlK(SO4)2.12H2O (0-550 µM), the 150 µM concentration was found to be an appropriate level to discriminate between sensitive and tolerant genotypes of tef. This concentration adequately differentiated 28 tef genotypes with varied sensitivity to Al-toxicity. The visual assessment of selected tolerant and sensitive genotypes treated with 0, 150 and 250 µM AlK(SO4)2 .12H2O showed a differential reaction to haematoxylin staining consistent with the root growth measurement methods. The tolerant E. curvula showed no staining reaction across all the Al levels. The local Al-tolerant tef landrace, Dabo banja, showed a slightly purplish stain only at the highest level of Al. The two sensitive genotypes (E. Pilossa and Holeta Key), however, showed deep purple staining at concentrations of 150 and 250 µM AlK(SO4)2.12H2O. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to report the use of root measurement and root staining methods in evaluation of tef for tolerance to Al-toxicity using hydroponics platform.

Pages 1047-1059 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.08.p3536
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Genetic variability, heritability and genetic gain of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes in response to Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus Boheman) infestation

Shiferaw G. Tigist*, Gemechu Keneni, Amelework Assefa, Julia Sibiya

Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Melkassa Agricultural Research Centre, P.O. Box 430, Adama, Ethiopia
Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Holeta Agricultural Research Centre, P. O. Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Agricultural Research Council, Vegetable and Ornamental Plant, Private Bag X293, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa
African Centre for Crop Improvement, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa


Abstract
The aims of the study were to determine expected genetic gains from selection and the extent and pattern of genetic diversity of common bean genotypes to Mexican bean weevil. Three hundred bean genotypes were artificially infested with the Mexican bean weevil. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on thirteen insect and seed related traits were recorded and subjected to statistical analysis. The broad-sense heritability values ranged from 68.5%–93.9% for the traits studied. The expected genetic gains from selection ranged from 5.9%-67.1% for insect related traits and from 0.2%-82.2% for seed related traits. Seed weight loss showed significant positive phenotypic and genotypic correlation with number of eggs, number of adults emerged, percent adult emergence, index of susceptibility, number of holes and first and second progeny damage. Cluster analysis classified the 300 genotypes into two major clusters and seven sub-clusters. Mahalanobis’s D2 value calculated among the sub clusters ranged from 5.6 to 191.6. There was no defined relationship between geographic origins and the pattern of genetic diversity in response to Mexican been weevil infestation. Therefore, parental selection should be made based on genetic diversity and other special merits of the genotype for the resistance attributes. The introgression of the resistance gene into the adapted improved varieties and landraces, and increasing the frequency of resistance genes through selection could be used as a strategy to improve bruchid resistance in the future.

Pages 1060-1068 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.08.p3543